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Solar flares with Hard X-rays (HXR) detected by SONG ( CORONAS-F) [2004, 2005]

It is well known that the Sun is the most energetic particle accelerator in the Solar system, producing ions of up to tens of GeV and electrons of up to tens of MeV. The information regarding peak gamma emission energy obtained by the SONG experiment allows us to estimate the flux and spectra of the charged particles accelerated in the Solar atmosphere.

The CORONAS-F duty cycle of solar flare detection was approximately 40% as a consequence of its orbital parameters; thus many major flares that occurred since August 14, 2001 till September 12, 2005 were not observed. Still, 9 flares with HXR emission have been detected by CORONAS-F during 2004 and 23 ones during 2005.

Characteristics of the SONG flares (detection time and peak gamma ray energy channel) as well as soft X-ray (SXR) GOES characteristics are presented in Table 1. Apparently HXR emission was observed not only in major X-class flares in SXR; there are several M and C class (in SXR) flares accompanied by HXR emission. Such hard spectra of energetic neutral emission indicate that the charged energetic particles were accelerated in this flare up to rather high energies.The comparison of number of gamma flares observed in different years shows that flares producing HXR and gamma emission also occur close to the minimum of Solar activity cycle.

Click the index of HXR emission to view the graphic representation of HXR-ray count rates detected by SONG and a RHESSY data to view the graphic representation of RHESSI data.

Solar flares with HXR and gamma-emission detected by SONG (CORONAS-F) experiment [2004]
N Date SHR-flare UT (GOES) start-peak-end SONG UT (42-80keV) SXR-class Coordinates Active Region Maximum, MeV RHESSI data SONG data comments
1 06.01 06:13-06:29-06:36 06:22-06:24 M5.8 N05E90 0537 5.2-9.1 Yes
2 08.01 04:53-05:07-05:21 04:55-05:01 M1.3 N01E64 0537 0.07-0.18 Yes
3 11.04 03:54-04:19-04:35 04:13-04.18 C9.6 S16W46 0588 0.07-0.18 Yes
4 30.10 11:38-11:46-11:50 11:43-11:44 X1.2 N12W26 0691 0.07-0.18 No ERB from 11:45
5 30.10 16:18-16:33-16:37 16:24-16:25 M5.9 N13W28 0691 0.07-0.18 Partial ERB till 16:24
6 03.11 01:23-01:33-01:37 01:26-01:33 M2.8 N12W75 0691 0.07-0.18 No
7 04.11 22:53-23:09-23:26 22:53-23:01 M5.4 N08E18 0696 0.07-0.18 Yes
8 08.11 14:30-14:35-14:38 14:34-14:35 C7.7 N06W35 0696 0.07-0.18 No
9 30.12 22:02-22:18-22:28 22:10-22:12 M4.6 N04E46 0715 0.07-0.18 No


Solar flares with HXR and gamma-emission detected by SONG (CORONAS-F) experiment [2005]
N Date SHR-flare UT (GOES) start-peak-end SONG UT (42-80keV) SXR-class Coordinates Active Region Maximum, MeV RHESSI data SONG data comments
1 01.01 00:01-00:31-00:39 00:27-00:37 X1.7 N06E34 0715 2-6 No
2 14.01 21:08-21:26-21:39 21:16-21:24 M1.9 N14E10 0720 0.08-0.225 Yes Several short peaks
3 15.01 00:22-00:43-01:02 00:39-00:42 X1.2 N14E08 0720 0.225-0.75 Yes Middle latitudes
4 15.01 05:54-06:38-07:17 06:24-06:32 M8.6 N16E04 0720 0.08-0.225 Partial ERB till 06:24
5 15.01 22:25-23:02-23:31 20:38-20:55 X2.6 N15W05 0720 0.225-0.75 Yes In a polar cap
6
7 17.01 06:59-09:52-10:07 09:06-10:00 X3.8 N15W25 0720 2-6 Partial Gap in 09:16-09:52
8 18.01 15:38-15:51-15:59 15:46-15:47 M4.6 N15W42 0720 0.08-0.225 No
9 19.01 08:03-08:22-08:40 08:08-08:15 X1.3 N15W51 0720 0.08-0.225 Partial Shade till 08:08
10 20.01 06:36-07:01-07:26 09:47-09:58 X7.1 N14W61 0720 90-150 Yes
11 21.01 10:10-10:16-10:19 10:14-10:16 M1.7 N19W81 0720 0.225-0.75 Yes
12 06.05 03:05-03:14-03:21 03:07-03:12 C9.3 S04W71 0756 0.08-0.225 Yes
13 16.06 20:01-20:22-21:10 20:50-20:53 M4.0 N08W90 0775 0.08-0.225 Yes HXR after maximum
14 14.07 05:57-07:25-07:43 07:22-07:24 M9.1 N09W90 0786 2-6 No
15 14.07 10:16-10:17-10:55 10:25-10:28 X1.2 N12E60 0788 0.08-0.225 Partial
16 28.07 21:39-22:08-22:24 21:49-21:55 M4.8 N09E82 0792 0.08-0.225 No
17 30.07 06:17-06:35-07:01 06:12-06:28 X1.3 N12E60 0792 0.225-0.75 Partial
18 23.08 14:19-14:44-16:08 14:36-14:40 M2.7 S14W90 0798 0.08-0.225 ERB
19 08.09 20:52-21:06-21:17 21:04-21:06 X5.4 S12E75 0808 0.08-0.225 No Small peak
20 09.09 19:13-20:04-20:36 20:00-20:16 X6.2 S12E67 0808 2-6 Partial Shade till 20:00
21 10.09 21:30-22:11-22:43 21:45-22:15 X2.1 S13E47 0808 0.75-2 Yes
22 12.09 08:37-09:03-09:20 08:45-08:49 M6.2 S11E25 0808 2-6 Partial

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